Home > Courses > Best of ACTHIV 2022: Principles of Antiretroviral Therapy

Best of ACTHIV 2022: Principles of Antiretroviral Therapy

Approval Date: 5/6/2022
Expiration Date: 09/15/2023
Published Date: 9/15/2022
Learning Objectives / Desired Outcomes
At the completion of this educational activity, participants will:
  1. Describe the HIV life cycle and the targets for current antiretroviral agents
  2. List the considerations when choosing an ART regimen
  3. Compare and contrast resistance testing methods and describe their limitations

This module will review the HIV life cycle and targets for current antiretroviral agents, considerations for choosing an ART regimen, and resistance testing methods. Part of the conference "HIV: the Basics" session, this module provides both a solid grounding for newer HIV clinicians and a review of foundational concepts for more experienced care team members.

  • Wendy Armstrong, MD
    Professor of Medicine/Infectious Diseases
    Emory University School of Medicine
Presenter Bio
Wendy Armstrong, MD

Wendy Armstrong MD, FIDSA is a Professor of Medicine/Infectious Diseases at Emory University School of Medicine. Currently she is the Associate Division Director of Infectious Diseases, Vice Chair of Education and Integration for the Department of Medicine, the Program Director of the Infectious Disease Fellowship Program and the Executive Medical Director of the Ponce de Leon Center/Infectious Disease Program at Grady Health System. She is on the Board of Directors of the Infectious Disease Society of America and HIV Medicine Association. Her research interests are in innovative methods of care delivery to vulnerable populations living with HIV and in expanding the ID/HIV workforce. 

Continuing Education Credit

This accredited continuing education activity is provided by American Academy of CME, Inc.

The 16th Annual American Conference for the Treatment of HIV (ACTHIV 2021) was held May 5-7, 2022. The conference and this Best of ACTHIV web archive were supported by educational grants from Gilead Sciences; Janssen Therapeutics, Division of Janssen Products, LP; Merck, Theratechnologies, and ViiV Healthcare.


Wendy Armstrong MD, Professor of Medicine, Emory University

Estimated time to complete: 30 minutes


This activity is intended for frontline providers of care to persons at risk for or who are living with HIV, including specialist and primary care Physicians, NPs, PAs, Nurses, and Pharmacists. Other HIV care team members are also encouraged to participate.


American Academy of CME is Jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.


American Academy of CME, Inc. designates this enduring material for a maximum of 0.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Nurses Practitioners and Nurses: 

American Academy of CME, Inc. designates this educational activity for 0.5 contact hours (0.5 pharmacotherapeutic contact hours).

Physician Assistants:

American Academy of CME, Inc. has been authorized by the American Academy of PAs (AAPA) to award AAPA Category 1 CME credit for activities planned in accordance with AAPA CME Criteria. This activity is designated for 0.5 AAPA Category 1 CME credits. Approval is valid until September 15, 2023. PAs should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation.

All other members of the HIV Care team will receive a certificate of participation.


There is no fee to participate in this activity. To obtain your certificate of credit/participation, you must read the CME/CE information, review the activity content, and complete the activity assessment and evaluation. Upon submission, your CE certificate will be emailed to you within 24 hours.


According to the disclosure policy of the Academy, all faculty, planning committee members, editors, managers and other individuals who are in a position to control content are required to disclose any relationships with any ineligible company(ies). The existence of these relationships is not viewed as implying bias or decreasing the value of the activity. Clinical content has been reviewed for fair balance and scientific objectivity, and all of the relevant financial relationships listed for these individuals have been mitigated.

The opinions expressed in this accredited continuing education activity are those of the faculty, and do not represent those of the Academy, or ACTHIV. This educational activity is intended as a supplement to existing knowledge, published information, and practice guidelines. Learners should appraise the information presented critically, and draw conclusions only after careful consideration of all available scientific information.

Off-Label Usage Disclosure

There will be no off-label/investigational uses discussed in this presentation.

Faculty Disclosure

Wendy Armstrong, MD: has no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies to disclose.

Planner Disclosures

The following individuals have no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies to disclose: Beatrice Aladin, MD, MPA; Jillian Baron, MD, MPH; John T Brooks, MD; Jose Castillo-Mancilla, MD; Lisa Catalli, MSN, NP-C; Jonathan Colasanti, MD, MSPH; Sherrillyn Crooks, PA-C; Christopher Evans, MD; Courtney V Fletcher, PharmD; Donna Futterman, MD; Rajesh Gandhi, MD; Mary Glenshaw, PhD, MPH, OTR/L; Jose Gutierrez, PhD, MSN, FNP-BC; Tomasz Jodlowski, PharmD; John JD Juchniewicz, MCIS, CHCP, FACEHP; Natalie Kirkwood, RN, BSN, JD; Jennifer Kay-Berene Klein, MSN; Harry Lampiris, MD; Sharon Lee, MD; Vincent Lo Re, MD, MSCE; Amber McCracken; Lorenzo McFarland, DHA, MPH, MSW, PMP; Paul Miniter, MS; Edward Moylan, RP; Asa Radix, MD, PhD, MPH; Dianne Rausch, PhD; Aaron Richterman, MD MPH; Jeri (Jieri) Sumitani, MMSc, PA-C; Pablo Tebas, MD; Ronald Dean Wilcox MD; Darcy Wooten, MD, MS

The following individuals have relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies to disclose:

Dawn Averitt, BIS: Advisory Board/Consultant – Merck, Gilead Sciences, ViiV Healthcare

Roger Bedimo, MD, MS: Advisory Board/Consultant – Merck, ViiV Healthcare, Theratechnologies*

Eric Daar, MD: Advisory Board/Consultant – Merck, Gilead Sciences, ViiV Healthcare; Grant/Research Support – Gilead Sciences, ViiV Healthcare

Carlos del Rio, MD: Advisory Board/Consultant: Resverolix, Sanofi-Pasteur*

Margaret Hoffman-Terry, MD, FACP, AAHIVS: Advisory Board/Consultant – ViiV Healthcare; Grant/Research Support – ViiV Healthcare; Speakers Bureau – Gilead Sciences, ViiV Healthcare

H. Nina Kim, MD, MSc: Grant/Research Support – Gilead Sciences

Igho Ofotokun, MD, MSc: Grant/Research Support – Merck

Tonia Poteat, PhD, MPH, PA-C: Advisory Board/Consultant – Merck, ViiV Healthcare

Jennifer Price, MD, PhD: Advisory Board/Consultant – Theratechnologies, Gilead Sciences, Merck; Grant/Research Support – Gilead Sciences, Merck; Speaker’s Bureau – Gilead Sciences

Jason Schafer, PharmD, MPH: Advisory Board/Consultant – Merck, ViiV Healthcare; Grant/Research Support – Merck, Gilead Sciences*

Renslow Sherer MD: Grant/Research Support – Gilead Sciences

William R Short, MD, MPH, FIDSA: Advisory Board/Consultant – Gilead Sciences, ViiV Healthcare; Speaker’s Bureau – ViiV Healthcare, Janssen

Babaafemi Taiwo, MBBS: Advisory Board/Consultant – Gilead Sciences, Merck, ViiV Healthcare, Janssen

Melanie Thompson, MD: Grant/Research Support – Cepheid Inc, Cytodyn Inc, Frontier Biotechnologies, Gilead Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, ViiV Healthcare

Andrea Weddle, MSW: Policy Consultation: Merck

Susan Weiss, FNP-BC, MSN, AAHIVS: Advisory Board* – Gilead Sciences, Merck, ViiV Healthcare, Janssen; Speaker’s Bureau* – Gilead Sciences, ViiV Healthcare, Janssen

*Indicates relationship has ended

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Hardware/Software Requirements To access this activity hardware and software requirements are noted below.

Windows Requirements: • Operating system: Windows XP Service Pack 2 or later • Browser: Internet Explorer 7 or later, Mozilla Firefox 2.5 or later • Internet connection: DSL, cable modem, or other high-speed connection • Flash: Adobe Flash Player 9 or later 

Macintosh Requirements: • Operating system: Mac OS X v10.3 or later • Browser: Mozilla Firefox 2.5 or later • Internet connection: DSL, cable modem, or other high-speed connection • Flash: Adobe Flash Player 9 or later

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